Edge Grain vs End Grain

In selecting a cutting board, you have a choice between edge grain and end grain construction.

In edge grain boards the wood grain runs horizontally, so your knife blade is cutting across and into the wood's grain.  Because of this, edge grain construction means your board will be less resilient to knife cut marks.  However, this construction allows for boards to be thinner and lighter, to be less costly, and most important to highlight beautiful "runs" in the grain of wood.

In end grain boards the wood grain runs vertically, so your knife blade is cutting between the wood's grain fibers (kind of like parting the branches if you're hiking through a dense forest).  As a result, the board is more resilient to knife cut marks and your knives will dull more slowly because they're not "challenged" as much as with edge grain boards.  End grain boards are thicker and more costly because their construction is more complicated, with wood cut into strips and flipped to be glued so that the grain faces up/down.  These boards are both strong and reveal beautiful grain pattern combinations.

All your wood pieces should last a long time with proper conditioning and avoidance of radical temperature and humidity swings.